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Criterion Details

PD-10 Pedestrian Facilities

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Project Development Scorecard

  • Urban Basic
  • Urban Extended


Provide safe, comfortable, convenient, and connected pedestrian facilities for people of all ages and abilities within the project footprint.

Sustainability Linkage

Triple Bottom Line

Planning and designing for increased pedestrian activity supports all of the triple bottom line sustainability principles by improving the safety for all users, enhancing livability and quality of life in communities, improving access to economic and educational opportunities and essential services, supporting local businesses and economic development, promoting physical activity and public health, and reducing vehicle emissions.

Background & Scoring Requirements


To receive credit for this criterion, the project must enhance existing pedestrian facilities or provide new pedestrian facilities that are context-sensitive and appropriate. Reconstruction of pedestrian facilities in kind when widening roadways and/or bridges does not meet the requirements of this criterion, although this is still encouraged.

Applicable Pedestrian Guidelines

Per the FHWA Memorandum: Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Design Flexibility1 and the Questions & Answers about Design Flexibility for Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities2, FHWA recommends a flexible approach to pedestrian facility design. FHWA’s Small Town and Rural Multimodal Networks3 and Achieving Multimodal Networks: Applying Design Flexibility and Reducing Conflicts4 address designing multimodal networks.  The AASHTO Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities5 is the primary national resource for planning, designing, and operating pedestrian facilities. The National Association of City Transportation Officials’ (NACTO) Urban Street Design Guide6, and the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Designing Urban Walkable Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach7 guide builds upon the flexibilities provided in the AASHTO guide and can be used when designing safe and convenient pedestrian facilities. The NACTO guide does not supersede compliance with 2010 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Standards for Accessible Design8, the Public Rights‐Of‐Way Accessibility Guidelines9 (PROWAG), and The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways10 (MUTCD).

Qualifying Features

For pedestrian facilities to meet scoring requirements, improvements must be context sensitive and appropriate, go beyond minimum requirements, meet the needs of users of all ages and abilities, and include features that are safe, comfortable, convenient, and connected, such as those listed below.

  • Examples of Safe and Comfortable  features include:
    • Increased sidewalk width – an increased width allows for pedestrian amenities without impeding on the walkway width and increases pedestrian comfort.
    • Improved intersection and midblock crossing design for pedestrians – such as countdown signal heads, leading pedestrian intervals, narrower lanes, pedestrian medians, pedestrian hybrid beacons, raised crosswalks, and curb extensions.
    • Trees – provide a physical buffer between pedestrians and moving vehicles, while also providing shade and potentially reducing traffic speeds.
    • Sufficient lighting on all sidewalks and crosswalks within the project footprint.
    • Landscaping, art, furniture, and social amenities (such as parklets, sidewalk cafes, and other gathering spaces) as appropriate to promote the use of the facilities and create a comfortable, pleasing facility.
  • Examples of Convenient and Connected features include:
    • New facilities that connect to existing facilities in the vicinity as part of the project.
    • Infrastructure that connects homes to places of employment, schools, shopping, services, transit, and recreation areas.

Scoring Requirements

Prerequisite PD‐10.1P

0 Points. Meet ADA Requirements

Facilities must meet ADA requirements to receive credit. No credit is given for improvements and it is assumed that retrofits to existing facilities will bring them up to required ADA standards because it is required by law.

Requirement PD-10.1

1 point. Install Missing Pedestrian Connections

Review pedestrian master plans and other relevant local, regional, and state documents to determine if the project presents an opportunity to incorporate missing pedestrian connections AND fill gaps in the pedestrian network as part of the project.

Requirement PD-10.2

1-2 points. Install Safe, Comfortable, Convenient, and Connected Pedestrian Features

One of the following requirements may apply:

  • Requirement PD-10.2a

1 point. Enhance Existing Pedestrian Facilities

Implement new or improve existing pedestrian facilities to include both safe and comfortable features and convenient and connected features. Current facilities do not qualify for this criterion without additional effort, such as upgrades, improvements, or construction of new features. The attempt to enhance pedestrian transportation should be deliberate and a direct result of the project. No points are earned for improvements and retrofits to bring existing facilities into ADA compliance. Examples of enhancements include curb extensions, pedestrian crossing islands, adding a landscaped buffer to an existing sidewalk, and making intersections safer and more comfortable to navigate on foot.


  • Requirement PD-10.2b

2 points. Develop New Pedestrian Facilities

Design and construct new pedestrian facilities that include both safe and comfortable features and convenient and connected features. New facilities include physical or constructed changes to the roadway structure, dimensions, or form that provide pedestrian access within the right-of-way (ROW) or roadway corridor. Examples include adding a pedestrian hybrid beacon to improve crossings, implementing a road diet that narrows crossing distances, or adding traffic calming elements to improve pedestrian safety. Reconstruction of facilities with the same features does not meet this requirement (e.g. widening road and replacing sidewalk, or constructing a new bridge with the same sidewalk as a prior bridge, etc.)


Above-Referenced Resources

The following resources are referenced in this criterion and consolidated here:

  1. FHWA, Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Design Flexibility (2013),
  2. FHWA, Questions & Answers about Design Flexibility for Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities (2014),
  3. FHWA, Small Town and Rural Multimodal Networks, December 2016,
  4. FHWA, Achieving Multimodal Networks: Applying Design Flexibility and Reducing Conflicts, August 2016,
  5. AASHTO, Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, First Edition (2004),
  6. NACTO, Urban Street Design Guide (2013),   
  7. ITE, Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach (2010),
  8. United States Department of Justice, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Standards for Accessible Design (2010),
  9. United States Access Board, Public Rights‐of‐Way Accessibility Guidelines (PROWAG) (2011),
  10. FHWA, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways (2009 with Revisions 1 and 2, May 2012),

Additional Resources

The following resources provide information on this criterion topic in addition to the sources directly referenced:

  1. FHWA, Bicycle & Pedestrian Design Guidance website (2015),
  2. United States Access Board, Shared Use Paths Guidelines and Standards (2011)  at
  3. FHWA, PEDSAFE website,

Case Studies & Criterion Examples

SSRPC - Visualizing Sustainability in the Historic Route 66 Corridor Project: The metropolitan planning organization (MPO) for Springfield, IL, the Springfield Sangamon County Regional Planning Commission (SSRPC), applied 23 of the 29 criteria from the INVEST Project Development (PD) module to a corridor improvement project along the Peoria Road / Route 66 Corridor. This corridor includes the historic Route 66, the state fairground, the SHEA's Museum, transit service, and a mix of residential and commercial development. The MPO held a workshop with stakeholder agencies in the region, including city officials and the state department of transportation. Planners explained how the INVEST tool measures sustainability and how it could be applied to the Peoria Road / Route 66 Corridor Improvement Project. Using the INVEST criteria, planners identified improvements that could be made to the corridor that would enhance sustainability.

Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon - Engaging INVEST for a Light Rail Project: TriMet engaged INVEST 1.0 to evaluate the Portland Milwaukie Light Rail (PMLR) transit project. Given the absence of a singular, exhaustive set of metrics or indicators for the transit industry, the INVEST 1.0 tool for evaluating highway projects offered a worthwhile opportunity to use a federally-tested set of metrics to understand, improve on, and communicate about transportation infrastructure. PMLR is a 7.3-mile light rail corridor providing access for residents of Portland and Clackamas County. The INVEST 1.0 tool provides a comprehensive framework for TriMet to assess the effectiveness of its sustainability strategies and their integration into the PMLR project.

NOACA - Evaluation of Regional Safety Program Using INVEST: The Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordination Agency (NOACA) is the metropolitan planning organization (MPO) for the Greater Cleveland area. NOACA used the INVEST self-assessment tool to evaluate its current Regional Safety Program (RSP), to identify improvements, and to identify where sustainability principles can be better incorporated. The ultimate goal was to improve the region’s sustainability by reducing fatal and serious injuries that negatively impact the social and economic principles through loss of life, injury and damages to personal and public property. Since 2008, NOACA has been actively analyzing crashes in the region and conducting road safety audits at various intersections. The Cleveland metropolitan region does not currently have an adopted goal or performance target related to transportation safety. To better focus efforts on reducing fatal and severe injury crashes in the Cleveland metro region, NOACA began revamping its Regional Safety Program (RSP) in the fall of 2013. To assist with the changes to the RSP, NOACA applied for an INVEST grant.

TxDOT - Embedding INVEST in Contracting for the Corpus Christi Harbor Bridge: The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) used INVEST during the procurement process for the Harbor Bridge Project in Corpus Christi. TxDOT’s request for proposals (RFP) required that bidders describe how their proposal would meet a “Platinum” rating on the INVEST PD module and a “Silver” rating on the INVEST OM module. The sustainability score, along with price and other factors, was part of the total score for selecting among the four bidders. This provided a strong incentive for bidders to achieve high sustainability at low cost. The winning bidder committed to a range of sustainability practices that will bring tangible benefits to the community.

Arizona DOT - Using INVEST to Integrate Sustainability: The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) decided to use all three modules of INVEST – System Planning, Project Development, and Operations and Maintenance – to help the agency meet its sustainability goals across the transportation life cycle.  ADOT used INVEST to integrate and advance existing sustainability efforts and to push forward new efforts.  INVEST’s comprehensive sustainability framework and criteria helped ADOT institutionalize sustainability across the agency and with local partners through inclusion in manuals, trainings, and awards.  This case study focuses on ADOT’s use of the Project Development module.

Scoring Sources

The project is considered to have met this criterion if the requirements above can be reasonably substantiated through the existence of one or more of the following documentation sources (or equal where not available):

  1. Purpose and need or other planning documents addressing pedestrian access on the roadway project, including how it fits with existing land uses and/or existing General and Transportation Plans.
  2. Results of public input on proposed pedestrian facilities, if any.
  3. Contract documents showing enhanced pedestrian facilities incorporated.